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Useful links and references


On Scottish English:


Corbett, John and Stuart-Smith, Jane (2013), 'English in Scotland' in Tometro Hopkins and John McKenny (eds), World Englishes, Vol. I: The British Isles, 189-217.


Corbett, John and Stuart-Smith, Jane (2012), ‘Standard English in Scotland’, in Ray Hickey (ed.), Standards of English: Codified Standards around the World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 72-95.


Corbett, John, McClure, Derrick, J., and Stuart-Smith, Jane (eds) (2003), The Edinburgh Companion to Scots, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.


On Glaswegian:


Macafee, Caroline (1993), Glasgow. Amsterdam: Benjamins.


Stuart-Smith, Jane (1999), 'Glasgow: Accent and voice quality' in Paul Foulkes and Gerard Doherty (eds), Urban voices: Accent studies in the British Isles, Edward Arnold, 201-22.


And our presentations from the Sounds of the City project, under ‘Outputs’ [Outputs]


You can find out more about Scots from these websites:

and you can search spoken and written Scottish English texts for your own projects using the open-access SCOTS corpus:


on phonetics:


Knight, Rachael-Anne (2012), Phonetics: A Coursebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Ladefoged, Peter (2004), Vowels and Consonants, 2nd edn, Oxford: Blackwell.


Ogden, Richard (2009), An Introduction to English Phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009


You can find out more about speech at these websites:


• Speech production:

• Diversity in dialect production:

• The IPA:



on sociolinguistics:


Holmes, Janet (2014), An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 4th edn, London: Longman.


Lawson, Robert (ed.) (2014), Sociolinguistics in Scotland. London: Palgrave.


Trudgill, Peter (2000), Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society. Penguin.



These links are also interesting:



On sound change:


Aitchison, Jean (2012), Language Change: Progress or Decay? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Crystal, David (2007), How Language Works: How Babies Babble, Words Change Meaning and Languages Live or Die. Penguin.

Harrington, Jonathan, Palethorpe, Sallyanne, and Watson, Catherine (2000), Does the Queen speak the Queen’s English? Nature. 408, 927-928